Treatment of tooth decay and its complications
Nowadays everyone has heard about caries. But often people do not know basics: what are its main causes as well as the consequences of untreated cases. Caries – is a disease of the hard tissues of the tooth that results in the gradual destruction of enamel, dentine and its structure. The main causes of caries are:
– bad habits
– unreasonable consume of drugs, that could influence oral cavity microflora
– random diseasesOf course, genetic and physiological characteristics of the human body play a very important role.
Delayed treatment of caries may cause inflammation in the soft tissues of the tooth, where pulpitis or periodontitis begins. Pulpitis – is an acute inflammation of the dental pulp, due to bacteria penetration into a tooth’s cavity. The main symptom of pulpitis is acute pain, which has the character of “sudden attack” and usually worsens at night. A typical pain for pulpitis is throbbing pain. Periodontitis is an inflammation of the root membrane of a tooth and tissues adjacent to it. It is often a complication of a tooth decay and occurs when the penetration and infection from the root canal spread through the apex of the root. There are two types of periodontitis: acute and chronic periodontitis. Acute periodontitis is presented by an abrupt pain in the tooth that worsens while touching and often followed with gum, lip or cheek swelling, as far as mobility of a tooth. Sometimes those symptoms are accompanied with fever and increased lymph nodes. The follow up, when untreated, might develop into suppurative inflammation of soft tissues of the face and neck or even sepsis. Chronic periodontitis is presented with a feeling of discomfort while chewing food and/or unpleasant smell from the mouth. Chronic periodontitis can lead to jaw cyst organization.How do we treat these diseases?
What is of the highest importance is to clean up the inflamed pulp. After we succeed in removal of an inflammation we start to provide antiseptic treatment of the surrounded tissues putting drugs into the tooth cavity and covering it with a temporary filling for a week or a bit longer. In more complicated cases antibiotics are to be prescribed. If the tooth condition is getting better, we place a permanent high-quality filling material. In case if the tooth is destroyed, we provide prosthetic services.
That is just a short description about danger of caries and its complications. Do not hesitate, because the consequences, as you can see , are not pleasant at all. We will be glad ta answer your questions as far as to treat your teeth. Remember to come to us in time.
It is not a secret that children are afraid of doctors, especially of dentists. This odd sound of the drill machine and dental equipment terrifies them. It is therefore important to find the right approach to the little patient. In this case, the dentist should be a pediatrician and psychologist as well. Our dentist Olga Shevtsova who has a great experience in working with children has all these qualities. Here are some tips from her.
So what should the parents know?
• Parents should take care of their kids teeth before birth so far. Chronic infections in the oral cavity of pregnant women (untreated teeth, stone plaque) cause lowering of immune system of the whole body, what affects the processes of prenatal mineralization of temporary teeth and permanent teeth prenatal development.
• Often parents believe that there is no need in brushing or treating temporary teeth, because they will fall out anyway. However, we have to consider the fact, that untreated teeth not only cause discomfort for a child, but it is also a source of infection in the body that weakens it. The microbes can cause dangerous intoxication. If temporary teeth stay untreated it leads eventually to extraction procedure, which could damage rudiments of permanent teeth.
• Premature removal of temporary teeth due to neglected care can also lead to the shifting of adjacent teeth, which try to fulfill free space. In this case, the permanent tooth can erupt in the wrong place or position. It is dangerous because of need in malocclusion correction in adulthood.
• Children’s teeth are to be brushed with a special toothpaste. First of all, this paste is not aggressive and has a pleasant taste. Secondly, it includes necessary minerals for temporary teeth.
• Teeth should be brushed right after their eruption. Use a silicone brush that is worn on the finger first. When a child will be about 1 year old, you can already use a special children’s toothbrush. If you want to bring more fun for a kid, you can buy a toothbrush with a toy, which will make a kid more interested/curious. This kind of brush has soft bristles with a matching size. Very important is to teach the child to brush teeth correctly and twice a day (in the morning and at evening). Proper teeth brushing (it concerns adults as well): move the brush vertically, from bottom to the top of the tooth. Perform a minimum of 5 to 10 movements per tooth or per group of teeth. Do not brush your teeth with horizontal moves, because it ruins the enamel.
• Healthy nutrition in childhood is very important, as it affects the condition of teeth development. Often the cause of various mouth diseases is unbalanced nutrition. It is important to consume dairy products because of the high level of calcium – basic mineral element of teeth and bones. It is unnecessary to feed a child with mashed food only. When teeth have established enough, it is important to feed a child with roughly chopped food in order to develop chewing apparatus in a right way and with a right load of forces.
• The child should show up at dentist office already within the first or second year of life. After, dentists advise to join preventive examinations at least twice a year. We shouldn’t wait until the tooth starts to hurt, as far as complications might already occur.
• Never, never make children feel scary about dentists, like “if you will not brush teeth, you will have your teeth extracted at dentist office”. It builds a picture in children’s mind, which could induce a panic fear of the dentist. Tell them better, that teeth should be cleaned in order to have a pleasant and healthy smile, to feel good and avoid a toothache.
Fissures sealing: what is that and why does your child need it?
Fissures sealing is a preventive procedure that is done in temporary and permanent teeth in first two years after their eruption.
Fissures are little hollows between the cusps of teeth. Fissure area is quite thin and poorly mineralized. It is a well known fact, that there are about 50 billion of bacteria in the mouth. When sugar comes in a different appearence to the oral cavity (with food or drinks), bacterias quantity immedeiately start to grow and deposit as a plaque on the teeth surface. We know how much children like sweets. This procedure is applied to the surface of the posterior teeth with the help of a thin layer of a special material, which protects teeth for a year long from tooth decay. Following steps are done while fissure sealing procedure:
1.Tooth surface cleansing with a following rinsing in order to remove the remains after cleaning.
2. Application of a thin layer of a special paste or a gel that smooths the surface of the tooth.
3. In 15 minutes, a paste or gel should be thoroughly removed with water.
4. Once the surface is dry, apply sealing material and dry until harden with a help of special lamp.
After procedure is done none of tiny food remains or bacteria can penetrate and set under this layer. This procedure is necessary for temporary teeth as well in order to avoid their premature extraction.
Dear parents, remeber that temporary teeth should be treated just as responsible as permanent. Dont forget about basic rules and preventive examinations .
Professional hygiene nowadays is a very important component in treatment of all dental diseases.
Hygiene of the oral cavity – is a professional teeth cleaning by removing plaque above and beneath the gumline. We recommend you to have a professional teeth cleaning twice a year. If this procedure is not done regularly, a dark deposit may appear around the necks of the teeth and this way forms a dental stone.
These deposits can go deep for 3-5 mm under the gums and cause periodontitis. The deposit can even appear in people who carefully look after their teeth, because, usually, these are the places that the toothbrush can not reach during the cleaning process.
• With the help of the ultrasonic device
• With the help of the mechanical method (instrumental)
• Powder-jet method with the help of Air FlowWith the help of the ultrasonic method we remove the dental stone that appears supragingival and subgingival with the special attachments that oscillate at a high frequency and this way exfoliate the dental stone. The teeth don’t hurt, while using this method, as the dentist works very carefully.We recommend you to use the powder-jet method, as it is the latest and the least traumatic for the gingiva. The procedure of removing dark dental plaque with the help of the Air Flow machine is the most effective and does no harm. As for all of this we only use a water jet with air and a special medicinal blend, which includes soda. The sizes of soda crystals are too small, so they do not damage the enamel, but completely remove the plaque. This procedure lasts for about 30 minutes, and after that we use a special protective lacquer that prolongs the effect of Air Flow cleaning. The powder-jet method is suitable for removal of residual stones after ultrasound treatment and for removal of dark dental plaque.
You should refrain for 2-3 hours from smoking, from coffee, tea and other foods that may contribute to tooth shading and smoking. The procedure has the effect of natural whitening. Thanks to this deep cleaning procedure, we remove the unwanted deposits from the teeth, which helps the teeth gain their natural, beautiful colour.
Esthetic restoration of the teeth
Aesthetic restoration of the teeth – is a method of restorement of the lost tooth structure by the usage of advanced composite materials. High quality tooth restoration will permanently eliminate dental cavities, enamel defects, various inequalities and tooth darkening. This method preserves the maximum amount of enamel and dentin. During the restoration process the important thing is to keep the complete imitation of the natural tooth appearance, that is why ,in this case ,we combine dentistry and artistic skills. It is difficult to distinguish a high quality dental restoration from natural teeth. Cavities, enamel defects, various irregularities, darkening and deposits on the teeth are gone forever. These teeth have a natural color, clarity, good shape, and even shine.
Aesthetic restoration of the teeth makes it possible not only to restore the beautiful shape of the tooth, but to fix its position in the tooth row, to close the fissures, surface imperfections and fractures.
However, not only the aesthetic aspect is important, we also should pay attention to the functional side. After the restoration the tooth should completely resemble the natural anatomic shape with all of the grooves and reliefs, because they contribute the proper processing of food.
Stages of the aesthetic restoration of the tooth:
• professional examination of the patients teeth, removal of old metal or composite fillings , which are usually the cause of secondary caries and discoloration
• professional teeth cleaning and preparation for the filling
• after we prepared the oral cavity we put the filling material, that perfectly resembles the natural color of your teeth
• one month after the restoration procedure, you need to make a control examination and do the polishing
Since ancient times people decorated their bodies. A new trend appeared recently-to decorate your teeth. If you like this new idea, we will realize any of your fantasies. The accessories could be gold or silver linings, linings with the usage of precious and ordinary stones. Accessories can be fixed with the help of modern adhesive systems directly to the tooth enamel or build in an artificial ceramic crown
PROSTHESIS OF THE TEETH
Fixed prosthesis include dental prothesis that are fixed with cement and they always remain in the oral cavity. This is why they are called fixed prosthesis. Fixed prosthesis include : inlays, onlays, veneers, lumineers, crowns and bridges.
Thanks to veneers, lumineers, inlays and onlays (thin plates), we can perform a separate method of non-removable prosthesis – microprosthesis. They are firmly attached to the teeth with a special adhesive system. With their help, you can change the shape and color of the front teeth, this way creating a whole new smile. This technique is also used on the back teeth and when abrasion exists.
Crowns and bridges are used when a tooth is destroyed so much, that it can’t be restored with a microprosthesis or a filling. We make them out of plastic, metal, metal-ceramic and metal-free ceramics.
Plastic crowns and bridges are used only as temporary ones. Temporary crowns are used so that the patients feel no discomfort, while they are waiting for the permanent crowns. When the patient comes to us for prosthetics, after the first visit he will already have comfortable temporary crowns.
Metallic crowns and bridges appropriately should be placed on the back teeth because they require less dusting. This prosthesis are strong and longlasting. However, this type of crowns and bridges only satisfy functional needs, not satisfying aesthetic.
Metal-ceramic crowns – are classic in modern prosthetics. Metal-ceramic – is a frame made of metal reverted in ceramics. This method is a great combination of price and quality. Metal-ceramic crowns and bridges have a great esthetic look; they are nonabrasive and will not change their color with time. We use only high quality materials:
• For the metal frame we use a cobalt-chromium alloy, from a German manufacturer, that is resistant to the masticatory loads and is hypoallergenic;
• For the ceramic revetment we use the ceramics from the Japanese manufacturer GC, and also high quality ceramics produced in Ukraine.
Metal-free ceramics are divided into several different types. One of them resembles metal-ceramic, but instead of the frame made of metal, the frame is made of zirconium oxide. Zirconium oxide is also a strong and hypoallergenic material that is very similar in color to the dentin of the tooth. On top of the zirconium oxide we apply several layers of special ceramics. You can only make crowns from zirconium oxide, but they are primarily used for back teeth, because this material is not transparent enough and is less aesthetic than ceramic, which we can cover it with.
The following types of metal-free ceramics – crowns that are made only of ceramics that are produced with the help of e-MAX technology from the German company Ivoclar. This type of metal-free prosthesis is the most esthetic, but using it we can produce only a few crowns, not bridges for several teeth. As for bridges, the material is not strong enough.
In general, metal-free ceramics – is a more esthetic type of prosthesis than metalceramic is. It allows to dissect the teeth less. This is particularly important in prosthetic vital teeth (in which the nerve wasn’t removed).
Removable Prosthesis are divided into full and partially removable prosthetic appliances. Full are used when the teeth are completely absent. They have a base and artificial teeth that are attached to it. We produce acrylic and thermoplastic full removable dental appliances. Thermoplastic prostheses are produced for people with hypersensitivity to the monomer, that acrylic is composed of. Prostheses with a metal base, we produce for those patients ,whose acrylic dentures can not stand the masticatory loads.
Partially removable prostheses are used when there is at least one tooth in the oral cavity. They could be acrylic , thermoplastic and bugel ,where we pick which one of them to use depending on the number of present teeth. If there are at least six teeth in each jaw, bugel prostheses can be used. They are more comfortable in usage. ” Bugel ” in german means ” arch “. This is the basic constructive element of this type of prosthesis. With the help of this arch two parts of the prosthesis are connected. The arch in the bugel prosthesis provides a better firmness and it’s size is smaller in comparison with the acrylic prosthesis. This way the usage of the bugel prosthesis is more comfortable for the patient. Thermoplastic dental appliances help us to avoid the usage of metal clasps (hooks) for their fixation on the teeth remaining in the mouth.
Each type of prosthesis has its advantages. We will pick the best option that will suit your personal features.